Unemployment Moreover, those who have good education have

Unemployment is one of the major issues and cause of
the ruination of Pakistan. Unemployment is the state of being jobless due to
any reason, such as lack of ability or willingness to work. Those who are
disabled, old or sick, cannot work or stay employed. On the other hand, there
are some people who are unskilled and uneducated and cannot find a job
opportunity. There are also such people who do not want to work as they are
simply lazy and lack passion and enthusiasm. In an article: Pakistan’s
Unemployment rate, published by Trading Economics, the researchers shows a
chart of Pakistan’s unemployment rate. The rate was lowest at 3.10 in 1987,
which means that the maximum numbers of people in Pakistan were employed. And,
the highest rate was at 7.80 percent in 2002 which means that maximum number of
people were unemployed. The rate remained unchanged at 5.90 percent from 2015
to 2016, which shows that there were no improvements in the employment
conditions of Pakistan. Apart from Pakistan, there are many other countries
that face unemployment too, such as, India, Bangladesh, South Africa,
Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and many more. The average rate of unemployment in
India is 4.08 percent.  

There are many reasons contributing to unemployment in
Pakistan. One of the reasons for unemployment is due to unavailability of jobs.
The man power is now being replaced by technology. Moreover, those who have
good education have the opportunity to get better jobs. And, those who do not
have education cannot get a high paid job and therefore, face severe poverty. High
unemployment means that people are not earning. They do not have money to spend
on goods and services. Due to low purchasing power, the economy is damaged. People
save more and spend less. The demand decreased and the circulation of cash in
the economy is affected. The companies reduce production and as a result, the
workers are redundant. As unemployment rate increases, the spending of
government on unemployment benefits also increases.

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Unemployment has a vast effect on society. Currently
the population of Pakistan is 193.2 million. There is not enough money to meet the
needs of all family members and so, the family falls into depression. Stress
and tension increases in families and they face health issues. Unemployed
people have low self-esteem. They have negative behaviors and actions. The crime
rates increases in a society. Many people attempt suicide. They have no social
network as people do not like interacting with them. They get negative stigmas
by the society. As a result, unemployed people fall into depression or engage
in criminal activities.   

Sociologists study society, culture and human
behavior. Unemployment not only affects the economy but it also affects the
society. Sociologists study unemployment to examine the mental and physical
health of employed and unemployed people and, see the difference in their
behavioral patterns. Sociologists research on this social issue to have the
essential knowledge of why the problem exists and what steps should be taken to
eliminate unemployment from the country.  

Apart
from being unskilled and uneducated, unemployment is also a state affair in
which the skilled people are jobless or employed to inferior jobs. Pakistan
graduates are skilled, well-educated and highly talented; however, they are
still struggling to get jobs. According to the article of Hamri web, more than
3 million Pakistanis are unemployed and the ratio is more than 12 percent. Due
to unavailability of jobs in Pakistan, the Pakistani graduates are flying
overseas in order to get high paid jobs. The major reason behind the
unemployment is the backwardness of agricultural sector. Only 44 percent people
get jobs in this sector.

It
is not only sensitive but is also like a ticking time bomb. The government is
not doing enough to defuse it. There are many causes of unemployment, but the
significant ones are: Over population, which is increasing by 2.2 percent. The
reason is illiteracy, early marriages, lack of awareness and the desire for
having sons in family. Education system lack efficiency. No effective policy
was made to improve the education system. There is a huge difference between
the government and private education system. The private educational institutes
are running a business and making large amount of profits. The fees are so high
that only elite class of Pakistan can afford to send their children to private
schools. On the other hand, the public schools run by government are in
horrible condition. The teachers are not well skilled and trained. There are
limited facilities available. Most of the institutions lack technical education.
Due to this, the most trending and latest degree is not offered. As a result,
there are more inexperienced and unskilled people wandering for jobs. Terrorism
and political instability has also contributed in destroying institutions and
effecting the economic growth of the country. Many international investors have
stopped investing their capital in Pakistan, which is also affecting the
economic growth. Factories shut down due to violence in the country. As a
result, the production in factories stopped and caused loss of job. Although
Pakistan is blessed with many natural resources, yet it fails to provide
electricity to its people. There are energy crisis due to lack of proper
planning. Hence, factories and industries are closing or transferring to other
countries. This means more labor force is unemployed. Technology is another
factor that has increased the rate of unemployment. Technology helps in fast and effective process of
production and so, those who are not skilled enough to use
technology lose their jobs. The prolonged unemployment results an increase in
crime rate, violent demonstrations and social unrest, which may cause loss of
life and damage to property. There are constant family feuds and friction,
which results in divorce and damage the future of children. Helplessly, jobless
people fall into excessive drug usage, theft and suicide. The flow chart shows
the impact of unemployment in an individual’s life.

Tourism
can be looked as the solution of unemployment but the terrorism scares the
tourist away. More people die in the streets of New York but one gunshot in the
third world country, stops the flow of tourism.

 Solutions:

As Pakistan is a third world country and its
unemployment rate is high, the government should reduce the use of technology
such as machinery and tractors and promote man power. The government should
give financial support to companies to expand their business and hire more
labor to decrease unemployment in the country. The government should encourage
new entrants in the market and give subsidies to support them. This will
accelerate the demand for labor. Funds can be used to retrain and financially
support jobless workers, who can transfer to jobs in health care, education, or
other areas. Education should be provided to everyone so that people can
improve their living standards through getting high paid jobs. Family growth
rate must be limited. Government should reduce interest rates to increase
buying power and regulate the flow of cash in the economy. There should be
growth of agricultural, industrial and service sector in Pakistan to reduce
unemployment. Moreover, there must be increased resource allocation
out of national budgets for employment promotion activities. There should be an
expansion of the primary health care program to make provision free health care
for the unemployed and their family as part of a relief package. There should
be expansion of social welfare programs, including the distribution of food and
clothing to decrease the rate of suicide.

There
are two theories that can be used in the unemployment: Keynesian theory and
Marx Theory. Keynesian theory analyze that the unemployment is caused by
deficiency of aggregate demand but it cannot be used for developing countries.
Countries are facing high rate of unemployment due to lack of land, capital and
resources in relation to total population.

The
existence of unemployment due to lack of capital or other cooperating factors
was an important question, which was discussed by Marx in the context of
advanced industrialized countries. Therefore, such unemployment has often been
called Marxian unemployment as distinguished from Keynesian unemployment.
According to Marx, the number of workers employed by the capitalists depends
upon the amount of capital in existence, and there is, what he called, “reserve
army of unemployed labor” because there is inadequate capital to employ all the
available labor.

Conclusion:

In
an article “Unemployment Crisis” by Pakistan Observer, Rabail Gandahi stated
that,

Pakistan comes in the list of top 18
countries with high unemployment where the unemployment rate is estimated around
8.5%. This is the highest rate of unemployment in the last ten years.

With
the increase rates of unemployment, other factors of a person’s life are also
affected. Such as, low income results in low quality of life, standard of
living and health. Unemployment not only affects an individual, but it also disturbs
the entire economic systems and the society in general. So, in order to
decrease unemployment, the government should increase the use of labor and give
education. Unemployment is one of the major issues that affect least developed
nations the most as it causes widespread poverty and unrest. Therefore, it
should be eliminated from the country as soon as possible.  

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