Satrapi by the Muslim men. In addition, the

Satrapi utilizes many stylistic and structural features in this page from her graphic novel, Persepolis. First and foremost, her characters are made to look simplistic and easy to draw. As seen in the first panel, there is a group of young Muslim students standing together as a group. They all look alike and each do not bear a distinguishing feature making it hard to stand out. They are all drawn with the same nose, eyes and mouths. This is different from other panels such as in panel 2 – 4, where there are some distinguishing features in the hairstyles and eyes. Satrapi intentionally makes Marjane, the character, unidentifiable or hard to identify in this chapter. This can be then connected to the theme of freedom and freedom of expression. As Marjane is confined to the rules of wearing her religious garb much like all her classmates, she loses her sense of unique expression. The author also uses emanata in panels 2 and 3 to express the students’ confusion and questioning of what they are being taught. The same whacking noise shown by the teacher is illustrated in the panel 7 by the Muslim men. In addition, the men in panels 5 to 7 have similar expressions of being in a daze. This is identifiable by the open mouths and closed eyes, indicating some pleasure from a painful act. Satrapi uses only black and white in this 7 panels to highlight and contrast differences in themes of the novel but also between the characters. There is a juxtaposition between the children and the adults as the children are all drawn to have the same confused and perplexed feeling while the adults are all shown to be enforcers of religious fundamentalism. This black and white can be representational of the themes found in the graphic novel. This can include religious fundamentalism vs secularism, children vs adults, freedom of expression vs oppression of individualism, purity vs evil.Satrapi does not make the character Marjane identifiable in this page. This is especially clear when this page lacks speech bubbles directed from Marjane to the reader. Instead, the author uses direct narration as found in the caption boxes to speak directly to the reader. This removes the barrier between author and reader and creates a more intimate relationship between them. This adds to the believability of the story being conveyed but also helps with the delivery of the pathos. There is the use of speech bubbles and dialogue. This is found when the teacher is talking to the students or the loudspeaker is playing the song. However, most of the information is delivered directly from the author through the use of direct narration. This may be in order to help the audience understand that self harm for religious ceremonies was a practice in Islam. Furthermore, this is further emphasized by how explicit Satrapi explains the practice in the last 3 panels. As it can be seen from going to how mild it can get to how extreme it can get in the span of 3 panels. Satrapi uses the white background to place emphasis on the characters and the actions of the characters. This can be seen in the last 3 panels where it is hard to identify a background or a time in which it is being done, as there is only a white background. Furthermore, Satrapi requires the audience to come to the conclusion that they are in school on their own. She gives hints and clues in the narration and in the way they are standing and such. The use of ‘class’ and the loudspeaker is very reminiscent of a morning assembly in school. The choice not to use a background serves to place emphasis on the characters and their choices, especially in the last 3 panels, where the purpose is to show how extreme religious practices in the name of religion can be.The author also connects the themes of being young and pure to growing up and accepting religion. This can be seen in the use of the slapping noise first seen in the 3rd panel being used by the teacher. It is seen again in panel 5 being enacted by the men who are participating in a religious ceremony

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