Connor that mathematics of classical mechanics left unexplained.

                                            Connor MeagherMr WashConceptual physics1/2/18                 Quantum Physics: (Intro test 37/60)                    ?Quantum physics is a branch of physics that deals with study of the sub-atomic and atomic nature and behavior of matter and energy. It is at times referred to as quantum mechanics. The start of 20th century saw many scientists believing that much had been done and most issues in physics had been solved. Laws of motion put forward by Isaac Newton were trusted and there was a general feeling that scientist understood most basic principles of nature with atoms forming the smallest units of nature. However, the introduction of the theory of relativity by Einstein and the overwhelming interest in the area of quantum mechanics that was increasingly growing drastically changed the scientific view in the understanding of the fundamental principles of physics. This paper aims at giving brief delineation of the concept of quantum physics, the history of quantum theory and some daily life applications of this concept.?Classical mechanics suggested that objects occurred in a particular place at a particular time. But the concept of quantum mechanics is that there is a probability of existence of objects. Objects have a chance to be at point X and they also have a chance to exist at another point Y. According to Glimm & Jaffe (2012), quantum mechanics was born many decades ago from the urge to provide mathematical explanations of the practicals that mathematics of classical mechanics left unexplained. This was around the start of the 20th century, the same time when Albert Einstein established his theory of relativity to explain the idea of the movement of objects at high speeds. It is worth noting that quantum mechanics is not an effort of one individual scientist. It is rather a combined contribution of several scientists who came up with different revolutionary principles that were subjected to experiments for ratification and gradually they became accepted between 1900 and 1930.?The founding principle of quantum mechanics was laid down by Max Planck, a German physicist in 1900 to explain the mystery of colors produced by objects. Planck sought to explain why the light emitted by glowing objects keep on changing from red to orange and eventually to blue when the temperature of the object kept increasing ( Glimm & Jaffe,2012). He made the assumption that energy can be quantified into individual units which he called Quanta, just like matter instead of being viewed in the perspective of an electromagnetic wave. This quantification he thought would help him demystify the concept of change in radiation and it became the first assumption of the quantum theory. Planck derived an equation that revealed to him that combination of only certain colors especially those that were whole-number multiples of the same base value were emitted. This implied that to some extent, colors were somehow quantized. Today, the number he obtained from his equation is known as the Planck’s constant. The Planck’s theory of quantization was used by Einstein in 1907 to explain why the temperature of a solid changes at different degrees when the same amount of energy is applied to the material but the starting temperature is changed.?In 1905, Albert Einstein theorized in his paper that he published that light travels in form of energy quanta. He suggested that this packet of energy could be absorbed or generated only as a whole especially when an atom jumps between quantized vibration rates. Einstein in his hypothesis made it interesting to explain the behavior of nine phenomena which include the Planck’s specific colors that he had described. The hypothesis also explained how certain colors could discharge electrons from metal surfaces through the photoelectric effect (Economou, 1983). Einstein’s theory was affirmed by Arthur Compton in 1923 by showing that light scattered by an electric beam changed in color. This clarified further that light can travel as a wave and as a particle and this brought the foundation of wave-particle duality in the quantum mechanics.?The light’s wave-particle duality made scientists doubt whether matter exists only in one form, particles. Scientists therefore begun demonstration to verify the wave-particle duality in matter. In 1924, Louis de Broglie, a French Physicist made the first attempt to show that particle can portray wave-like properties and that wave can exhibit particle-like characteristics using the equations of Einstein’s theory of special relativity (Zinn,2002). In 1925, the de Broglie’s reasoning was applied by two different scientists to show how electrons whirred around in atoms, something that mathematics of classical mechanics could not explain.? In 1927, two other scientists, Walter Heitler and Fritz London made further developments in wave mechanics by illustrating how atomic orbitals could combine to for molecular orbitals and their contribution clearly demonstrated how atoms combine to for molecules giving rise to Quantum Chemistry. This had also not been explained by equations of classical mechanics. In the same year, Heisenberg impacted greatly in Quantum Physics by coming up with a principle called Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. In his principle, Heisenberg reasoned that the more precisely an electron’s position is known, the less precisely its speed can be known, and vice versa (Glimm & Jaffe, 2012).To sum up, Quantum Physics has brought new knowledge which has been widely used in the day-to-day life in various fields. For instance, the principles of quantum mechanics are being used in quantum computing, quantum chemistry, quantum optics, quantum electrodynamics, and quantum chromo dynamics. In the world of computers, quantum physics has provided transistors that eliminated vacuum tubes. With these vacuum tubes, it meant that only governments and few corporations would have powerful computers but now individuals can acquire personal computers. Lasers have also been developed and hence Blue-Ray players have been manufactured. Quantum Physics is not only used in computers but also in all other technological advancements that make modern life possible. References:Economou, E. N. (1983). Green’s functions in quantum physics (Vol. 3). New York: Springer.Glimm, J., & Jaffe, A. (2012). Quantum physics: a functional integral point of view. Springer Science & Business Media.Zinn-Justin, J. (2002). Quantum field theory and critical phenomena (No. 113). Clarendon Press. 


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