Civil includes a list of characteristics such as

Civil
rights movements in The United-States are a series of social and political
movements, with the aim of acquiring Civil Rights for all Americans, regardless
of race, gender and sexual orientation in sum for equality before the law. One
would think that that Civil Rights Movements are only related to African
Americans but it would be a mistake, indeed African Americans were not the only
group of people who have faced discrimination. Jews and other groups were
frequently the target of anti-immigrant groups, they were forced to take the
lowest-paying jobs, and segregated into slum or housing project. Other
minorities groups who faced discrimination are Latinos, Asians, and Native
Americans. Nevertheless, racial minorities were not the only ones to undergo
discriminations. Women, disabled and homosexuals were likewise ostracized. All
of these groups fought to gain they rights, human rights, but many of these struggles
continue in today’s society. Thus, in this paper I will discuss how the Civil
Rights Movement against racial segregation and discrimination regarding African
Americans had pave the way for women’s rights, LGBT and disability rights.

            Prior the Nineteenth Amendment, the
bill that prevent States from denying the right to vote to citizens on the
basis of sex in 1920 women could not vote, but still with this bill their right
to vote was not fully respected. They had to wait until the Civil Rights Act in
1964, which includes a list of characteristics such as “race, sex,
religion, and national origin ” that could not be discriminated against,
that the door was finally open for women to protest against gender
discrimination.

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            If
any man can give one reason, drawn from the nature and constitution of        man, why he should have a voice in the
selection of those who shape the            policy
and make the Laws of the Government under which he lives, which          reason does not apply equally and as
forcibly to Woman, I for one, should             like
to hear that reason. To me, the sun in the heavens at noonday is not more visible than is the right of woman,
equally with man, to participate            in
all that concerns human welfare, whether in the Family, in Reform             Associations, Educational
Institutions, in the Church or in the State. Until        this Right is admitted, secured, and exercised, count me among
the friends   of the.                                                                                   (Frederick
Douglass)

The National Organization for Women,
one of the most important organizations formed out of the Women’s Rights
movement since 1966, has worked strongly to protect equal employment and pay, political
and sexual harassment for women. Even though the movement achieved victories,
in 1972 they failed to ratify the Equal Rights Act Amendment to the Civil
Rights Act. The Equal Rights Act states that women and men were equal before
the law.

An
important symbolic “victory”, step, for the women’s rights movement
is the Roe vs Wade case. In 1972, an unmarried woman from Texas who wanted to
safely end her pregnancy was prevented due to a Texas’s Law that made it a
crime to preform abortion unless a woman’s life is in danger.  On January 20 1973, The US Supreme court
announced its decision on the case and put the Texas Law on hold. Since then,
Roe vs Wade has come to be known as the case that made abortion to be
legalized, but even with The US Supreme court’s decision some states passed a
law that restrict access to abortion. The Supreme Court even struck down laws
that prevented women from joining the police for example, Indeed the Supreme
Court opened opportunities for women in what once were considered as men-jobs. Even
though men continue to reign over American politics, women have made
significant gains. The number of women holding elective office in all levels of
government continues to increase. In 2017, Hillary Clinton became the first
ever woman nominated by a major Party for the United States presidency. Sexual
harassment, and equal pay for equal work remain important issues for women.

            I’m a supporter of gay rights and
not a closet supporter either. From the        time
I was a kid, I have never been able to understand attacks upon the     gay community. There are so many qualities
that make up a human   being… by the
time I get through with all the things that I really admire          about people, what they do with their
private parts is probably so low on       the
list that it is irrelevant.”                                                        (Paul
Newman)

            Even though famous writers such as
Allen Ginsberg were openly gay. Equal Rights have come more slowly for the LGBT
community but since the 1980, a growing number of states adopted laws that
prohibit discrimination against sexual orientation and under the Obama’s
administration the  “don’t ask,
don’t tell” policy on military service, the military cannot ask about a someone
sexual orientation, and gays in uniform must keep their homosexuality a secret.
By 2002, 36 States had repealed all sodomy laws or overturned them by court
rulings. Then in 2003 the remaining sodomy laws were struck down by the 2003
U.S. Supreme Court decision, called Lawrence v. Texas case. Another major civil
rights issue in the LGBT community is marriage equality, the issue is whether
gay men and lesbian couples can marry. In 1996, Congress issued the Defense of
Marriage Act, which provided that states do not have to recognize same-sex
marriages even though it’s performed in other states that allowed same-sex
because some people support a constitutional amendment that define marriage as
a union between one man and one woman. In 2015, The Supreme Court has found a
constitutional right to same-sex marriage, striking down bans in more than 14
states, it was a historic victory for LGBT rights movement that would have been
unthinkable under a Republican president. Indeed president Obama (Democrat) was
one of the most important advocate for the same-sex marriage bill. During his
speech at the LGBT Pride Month reception, President Obama states directly his
opinion on the matter:

            We are big and vast and diverse.  We’ve got different backgrounds and           different beliefs.  We’ve got different experiences and
stories.  But we are           bound by our shared ideal that no
matter who you are or what you look          like,
where you come from, who you love — this is a place where you should    be able to write your own ticket, and be who
you are, and revel in your true    self.  We’re a people who believe enough in
America’s promise to make it        real
for everybody.

                                                                                      (President Obama, June 24,
2015)

            Another
minority who suffered from discrimination are disable people. Thus the
Disability Rights movement was also created, the purpose of the movement was to
break physical and societal boundaries and gain opportunities for employment
equity, education and housing. In 1990, The Americans with Disabilities Act was
introduce in Civil Rights Act of. The Act protects those who are physically or mentally
unable, including people with AIDS and substance abuser, and it also guarantees
protection in transportation, public accommodations and employment. Up until
now, the Disability Rights movement has faced challenges because some people
are reticent toward this bill, they argue that, for instance if a school has
only one disabled student the bill forces a school to keep a full-time nurse or
to make expensive landscaping projects in facilities. Hence in 2002, The
Supreme Court has decided that The Americans with Disabilities Act would only
covers impairments that affect a person’s daily life, not whether a worker can
perform a particular job and also a States cannot be sued under the ADA
anymore.

            Thus far, inequality remains, The
Civil Rights Movement did not achieve complete equality; the average income of
black families is still below whites’, college-educated blacks earn less than
whites. Women are still less pay than men and still suffered from sexual
harassment from powerful men such as Bill O’reilly or Donald Trump.  Although we must not give up because there is
a rise of nationalism due to terrors’ attack that brings hatred on people
hearts, with fatal consequences like the election of Donald Trump as the
United-States of American President and maybe next Marine Le pen in my country.

x

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