By: Christian Nicholas FislaINTRODUCTIONCaviar is harvested from a rare fish called the beluga sturgeon found mostly in the Caspian and black sea located in southern Europe. People have begun harvesting this delicacy in the 4th century and was described by Aristotle as “the eggs of the sturgeon.” Many popular industries as of 2018 have made billions in profit overall. Harvesting the beluga sturgeon close to extinction has made the caviar prices skyrocket in the past few decades. This has sparked controversy among the government officials as well as the population in various countries. 1 kilogram of beluga caviar can range anywhere from $3,000 to $34,000. The process of harvesting caviar from the beluga sturgeon consists of killing the fish before the extraction of the eggs is completed. QUESTIONS + ANSWERSEconomic:How has the caviar industry affected the economy in Iran being the biggest caviar producers?As of currently, sanctions upon the caviar industry have been lifted to due to a halting stop in Iran’s nuclear program. This has sparked Iran’s government to build two facilities near the Caspian sea costing more than $100 million dollars, each breeding close to half a million beluga sturgeon a year. After Iran’s nuclear program was canceled, Hassan Rouhani hopes this new project will boost their economy.The caviar industry in Iran has given many young man and women many opportunities in the future with little to experience. This, in turn, has greatly increased the economy almost as much as Iran’s oil industry. The government of Iran has stated that he wanted caviar to be a reliable export to many other countries rather than oil.Analysis: Iran exported oil before they began mass-producing caviar. This was due to the high concentration of this good located near or within the Caspian Sea. However, as the years went on, Iran began to struggle as their deposits began to run dry. Iran’s government decided to create a more reliable industry. They had already been farming caviar before, but not as much as today. That was the birth of a billion-dollar industry. Many jobs were transferred into the caviar industry and greatly increased wealth in many of the communities.How might the decreased supply of caviar affect the countries who import it?The United States imports live Russian sturgeon which is then transported and farmed in North Carolina and sold to the population. Russian caviar farmed in North Carolina is one of America’s biggest caviar supply. This had some effects on the market and sparked an illegal trading market for caviar.Analysis: As of currently, the United States does not import any more Russian sturgeon as the United States Fish and Wildlife Service has banned any caviar imports as the animal has become critically endangered. This has to lead to much of the farms in North Carolina shutting down.Political:How has the United States enforced regulations to protect the beluga sturgeon?When caviar exporters did not provide sufficient information on the topic of preserving the beluga sturgeon, The United States Fish and Wildlife Service decided to ban beluga sturgeon caviar imports which started on Friday, 2005. Prior to the United States imposing a ban on this rare and threatened species, similar treaties and laws about engaging in the trade of an animal threatened by extinction were passed.Analysis: The United States will not lift the ban placed upon imports of caviar and the beluga sturgeon as the beluga sturgeon concentration in the Caspian sea has decreased greatly over the past century. This has affected the surrounding ecosystem, as well as destroying biodiversity in the Caspian Sea.How have the current bans on caviar in the United States affected the production of beluga caviar in Iran?As of 2018, current bans on the near-extinct beluga sturgeon has lead to a variety of major caviar production drops. Before 2005, the United States imported just about 60% of international caviar. However, after The United States, Fish and Wildlife Service decided to place various bans on importing the beluga sturgeon, this had lots of major effects on the caviar industries located in Iran. In 2000, Iran’s caviar industries exported just above 40 tons of caviar. The following year, exports plummeted to mere 1 ton due to sanctions placed on their trades in response to Iran’s nuclear program. This number did not begin to grow as a following ban destroyed the industry by the United States in 2005.Analysis: North America is one of the worlds greatest caviar importer. The US has been a huge part of this and has left the caviar industry to plummet. As well as decreased caviar exports from Iran, their industries are suffering, which has to lead to an extreme drop of caviar exports.Social:How has the population in various countries reacted to the near extinction of the beluga sturgeon?Loch Fyne Seafood and Grill pulled a caviar scheme worth 4 million British pounds which began to draw protests about the caviar. The citizens began to grow uneasy because of the caviar scheme pulled in 2017. This is due to the price of caviar skyrocketing, which made companies like Loch Fyne utilize “fake” caviar to prevent profit loss.Analysis: Many businesses are profit-driven, which has caused Loch Fyne Seafood and Grill to charge customers with fake caviar. As caviar become rarer, this change has had a huge toll on its side of the market. Raises prices, this delicacy had tempted this seafood bar to sell fake caviar. How have the sanctions placed on Iran’s nuclear program affected the communities and markets living in close proximity to the Caspian sea?Many jobs in communities near the Caspian sea were heavily seafood based. This lead to the supermarkets and communities being filled with the wealth and jobs from the United States and the Caspian Sea.Without the reliability of the caviar industry in 2005, many jobs were lost and caused many communities to live in poverty. A 56-year-old man working in the caviar industries stated; “this is my only skill,” while he was forced to move to the oil industry in Iran due to a lack of jobs with caviar.Analysis: When Iran had begun their nuclear program, this had major effects on their caviar industry due to sanctions placed upon them by global officials. This made the caviar industry suffer and had a huge effect on the markets and communities near the Caspian Sea. This was due to the jobs in the caviar industry being accessible and available for the new people who needed work.Environmental:How has the Caspian sea changed in the past century due to a sudden drop in supply of the beluga sturgeon?Due to overfishing of the beluga sturgeon in the Caspian Sea starting in the early 1950’s, the Caspian Sea’s biodiversity has greatly changed. This has lead to many species losing its home in the sea, as well as becoming a non-suitable place for the beluga sturgeon to be farmed in. Therefore, water from the Caspian Sea is being pumped into various facilities lying on the west coast.Analysis: When a certain part of an environment which is currently in equilibrium is removed, it will cause an imbalance in the way the system functions. This will then have an effect on other animals related or down the food chain. Biodiversity makes it harder for unrelated species to come and harm the ecosystem. Unfortunately, Russian killer algae have flowed downhill and caused a severe drop in biodiversity. How might the caviar industry be affected by Russia’s “killer algae” moving downstream?When Russian killer algae had moved downstream into the killer algae this had caused a big problem for the beluga sturgeon living in the Caspian Sea. Algae treatments were mandatory, and this could mean anything from an injury or even death to the beluga sturgeon. In 2012, Iran’s sturgeon population dropped by 90 percent due to an invasive species coming from Russia known as “killer algae” which has had a major toll on the caviar industries in Iran which hope to be revived as a more reliable international export than oil. Analysis: When killer algae began flowing downhill into the Caspian Sea, this caused a variety of problems for the caviar industry. Instead of farming caviar straight from the Caspian sea, water had to be pumped out, then filtered from algae to ensure a clean environment for the beluga sturgeon to live. This has also made the government of Iran build two new facilities in close proximity to the Caspian Sea.MAP ANALYSIS:As presented on the map, it is evident that majority of beluga sturgeon roots in the north. This is because of various problems which include Russia’s “killer algae.” Currently, summer is getting warmer and winter is getting colder. This has its effect on the beluga sturgeon, as it provides an unsuitable habitat due to the extreme cold up north. Another reason for the sturgeon disappearing is because of Russian poachers who would collect the remaining wild sturgeon for the United States to import. Recently, many of the sturgeon’s breeding grounds have been abducted and replaced with bridges or dams. A great example of this is the Danube river as it holds its place as one of the biggest sturgeon breeding grounds in the world. Not later after a bridge was constructed leaving many wild sturgeon to die.CONCLUSION: As of currently, the beluga sturgeon is critically endangered and will require lots of cooperation to lift it up to its original glory. Many countries are taking advantage of this well-requested delicacy. Currently, Iran holds a monopoly of the caviar industry, and many efforts by the united states and other countries are ongoing to save the beluga sturgeon. This animal is near extinction and is still disappearing at an alarming rate. Iran will continue to farm this fish without a plan, despite the fish nearly going extinct. Unless we help this rare fish, it will become extinct.