N??d of Shift
In today’s mark?t, th? subscrib?r / ?nd us?r is at th? c?nt?r of ?v?rything,
and th? s?rvic?s ar? driv?n by us?r d?mands. Initially mor? focus?d on short m?ssag?
s?rvic? (SMS), multim?dia m?ssag? s?rvic? (MMS), and cont?nt downloading, th?
3G mark?t has mov?d rapidly toward vid?o sharing, mobil? vid?o, and IPTV, all
of which r?quir? v?ry high data throughput and highly ?ffici?nt radio.
Th? lat?st UMTS ?volution brings improv?d sp?ctral ?ffici?ncy at
low?r lat?ncy and high?r data sp??ds with almost 100 tim?s improv?m?nt from 3G
– th? n?w promis? known as 4G. To achi?v? this, th? air int?rfac? is making us?
of n?w modulation t?chniqu?s which ?ff?ctiv?ly targ?t th? issu?s s??n with 3G,
such as symbol ?ffici?ncy. Th? radio int?rfac? has adopt?d som? b?st-in-class m?thods
for th? air int?rfac?, nam?ly Orthogonal Fr?qu?ncy Division Multipl?xing (OFDM)
and Multipl?-Input Multipl?-Output (MIMO) syst?ms.
larg?st t?lco Bharti Airt?l has roll?d out 4G n?tworks ov?r th? 1800 MHz (FDD
LT?) and 2300 MHz (TDD LT?) bands cov?ring as many as 400 locations whil? arch
rival R?lianc? Jio, a pur?-play 4G op?rator has launch?d s?rvic?s comm?rcially
in India. This Mad? oth?r compani?s to shift to 4G without a h?lp and launch 4G
data s?rvic?s in India.
Compon?nts in th? 4G
Th? n?w 4G archit?ctur? is ?volving
with f?w?r nod?s and a flatt?r structur?, thus giving low?r lat?ncy. That
brings in for a r?quir?m?nt of an all-IP-bas?d cor? n?twork to support th? high
data throughput and is g?n?ral ?nough to b? acc?ss?d by th? diff?r?nt radio acc?ss
n?tworks through gat?way int?rfac?s.
As a r?sult, 4G is not so much about all n?w
standards, but is inst?ad bas?d on ?xisting t?chnologi?s (?.g., WLAN, 2G, 2.5G,
3G, and sat?llit?) b?ing us?d to b?tt?r advantag?. 4G is th? ?volution b?yond
3G which addr?ss?s th? limitations s??n so far whil? working to ?nhanc? th?
quality of s?rvic? and incr?as? th? bandwidth to mak? b?tt?r us? of r?sourc?s.
Th? ?volv?d Pack?t Syst?m (?PS) archit?ctur?
supports a bas? station and a cor? n?twork compon?nt. Th? ?PS supports 3GPP
(3rd G?n?ration Partn?rship Proj?ct) as w?ll as non-3GPP acc?ss. Th? fl?xibility
of providing acc?ss to diff?r?nt radio typ?s mak?s it possibl? for th? cor? to ?volv?
ind?p?nd?ntly from acc?ss as a cost-?ff?ctiv? IP ?nvironm?nt.
Th? 4G cor? addr?ss?s mobility, s?curity,
and QoS through r?us? of ?xisting m?chanisms whil? still trying to work on som?
mobility and handov?r issu?s. This IP-bas?d cor? archit?ctur? ?nabl?s location
and QoS-bas?d s?rvic?s for th? us?rs. Th? radio n?tworks acc?ss th? cor?
through IP; circuit switching is totally abs?nt. Voic? s?rvic? will b? transf?rr?d
ov?r IP as pack?ts along with th? signaling and data. Th? IP-bas?d
infrastructur? translat?s into low?r s?tup cost.
4G N?twork S?curity
In th? curr?nt mobil? n?tworks, op?rators ar? in compl?t?
control of radio acc?ss and backhaul, but this will chang? with 4G as that
archit?ctur? allows for all-IP backhaul and multipl? acc?ss n?tworks du? to
incr?as?d risks of s?curity intrusion and attacks.
privacy b?com? mor? and mor? important as s?rvic?s touch mor? of comm?rcial asp?cts,
and thus accountability is r?quir?d but not to th? point of compromising id?ntity.
On th? untrust?d backbon? of IP n?tworks, us?rs will n??d mor? ?nd-to-?nd s?curity
achi?v?d through ?ffici?nt t?chniqu?s as w?ll as ?ncryption of cont?nt and stor?d
As th? ?nvironm?nt b?com?s mor? compl?x with a vari?ty
of s?rvic?s at subscrib?rs’ disposal, data prot?ction and ?xtra auth?ntication
will b? ?v?n mor? important. Also critical will b? location privacy, prot?ction
against attacks lik? malicious calls, ?av?sdropping, and traffic d?viation / r?-routing.
F?atur?s of 4G
IP Cor? N?twork: Th? IP cor? n?twork will b? bas?d on IPv6
(IP V?rsion 6) inst?ad of IPv4. This is mor? conduciv? to a larg? numb?r of d?vic?s
with IP addr?ss?s and also supports mobility far b?tt?r than its pr?d?c?ssor.
Conv?rg?d S?rvic?s: A wid? rang? of s?rvic?s will b? availabl?
to th? mobil? us?r conv?ni?ntly and s?cur?ly via th? 4G Cor? N?twork. P?rsonal
communications, information syst?ms and ?nt?rtainm?nt will s??m to b? m?rg?d
into a s?aml?ss pool of cont?nt.
Thr?? N?twork Lay?rs: Th? Cor? n?twork may b? vi?w?d as consisting
of 3 lay?rs – th? Transport N?twork, th? S?rvic? Middl?war? and th?
Applications. Th? Transport N?twork is th? actual n?twork int?rconn?ction and
will b? configur?d by rout?rs, as with any IP n?twork.
D?vic?s Compatibility: A d?fining f?atur? of 4G will b? th? prolif?ration
of a vast array of d?vic?s that ar? capabl? of acc?ssing th? 4G backbon?. Wir?l?ss
capabiliti?s will b? ?mb?dd?d into d?vic?s that wouldn’t ?v?n consid?r today.
Not only p?rsonal d?vic?s lik? phon?s, PDAs, laptops, ?tc. but also s?nsors, ?mb?dd?d
controll?rs and oth?r sp?cializ?d ?quipm?nt.
Ubiquitous Mobil? Acc?ss: 4G aims to provid? acc?ss to multim?dia s?rvic?s
anytim? anywh?r?. Improv?d radio acc?ss t?chnology as w?ll as int?gration of
all typ?s of communication n?tworks allows for virtually constant conn?ctivity
to th? 4G cor? backbon?.
Dependency on Software: Advanc?d softwar? syst?ms ar? ?mploy?d for
all purpos?s lik? n?twork op?ration, s?rvic? provision, int?rfacing and int?gration,
?tc. Not only th? Cor? N?twork but th? mobil? d?vic?s will b? highly int?llig?nt
as w?ll as r?-configurabl? via softwar?.
Autonomous N?tworks: Whil? us?r d?vic?s ar? highly int?llig?nt,
th? cor? n?twork will also b? v?ry sophisticat?d. It will b? capabl? of
managing its?lf and dynamically adapting to changing n?twork conditions and us?r
pr?f?r?nc?s for s?aml?ss communication. Apart from ?volv?d mobility manag?m?nt,
conn?ction control, hand-ov?r m?chanisms, ?tc., dynamic bandwidth allocation
will mak? far mor? ?ffici?nt us? of th? availabl? radio sp?ctrum.
Quality of S?rvic? (QoS): 4G data rat?s will b?tw??n a f?w Mbps and
100 Mbps, h?nc? th? l?v?l of s?rvic? that can b? off?r?d is quit? tr?m?ndous.
Apart from 3G s?rvic?s lik? World Wid? W?b, ?mail, and wir?l?ss ?-comm?rc? this
data rat? is quit? ad?quat? to support th? high QoS l?v?ls r?quir?d for high-r?solution
multim?dia traffic, broadcast s?rvic?s, vid?o-conf?r?ncing s?rvic?s, ad Hoc n?tworking,
alarm notification, s?nsor data acquisition, ?tc.