1.Introduction research study is because it is something

1.Introduction

Mood disorders as a
phenomenon are very popular among the population and we can say that everybody
can understand it, at least in a general point of view. The first thing we need
to define is “What is this phenomenon?”. Mood disorders are described as a type
of illnesses that bring a drastic change of mood and are closely related to our
emotions. There are several types of mood disorders which I will mention
further on, but another question that needs an answer about this topic is  “Is it a common phenomenon?”.There are too many
sources that bring a lot of statistics that can convince us about the fact that
mood disorders are very present in our society. There are a lot of types of
mood disorders and each one has its own characteristics, including symptoms,
causes, effects etc. and normally for each one, we have a kind of “antidote” or
treatments that can heal or at least cure these problems. As we will go further
in this research paper we will determine that these disorders are related
closely to alcohol, drug and substances abuse, our personality and depression.
Mentioning depression, we can conclude that this phenomenon brings even
physical illness as well. The reason why I selected this topic and found it
interesting to be my research study is because it is something that in a way or
another is present in all of us, with different “amount” normally, but it is in
our inner self and by making a research and bringing some facts and valuable
logic arguments about this topic, will make me and others why not, to
understand and know more about this particular problem.

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2.Types
of mood disorders

When talking about
types of mood disorders, the most common and important ones are major
depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, mood disorder related to another
health condition, substance-induced mood disorder.

Major
Depression

Major depression, is
the most known type of mood disorders, sometimes known as unipolar or major
depressive disorder, is followed by symptoms like feeling sad and lack of
interest considering the outside world. This kind of depression is only focused
on the negative emotions and symptoms that you may have experienced. Major
depression is well-known by the medical community and somehow we can say that
it is easily treated through different communicative and medical therapies.

Major depression has
its own types including SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) – is a disorder that
it has to be with a specific time of the year, usually during winter times and
can be treated by a mix of different therapies and it is recommended to go to
the doctor for medication and counseling. Psycothic depression – usually
present in people who have hallucinations, delusions and have experienced a
traumatic event or had a kind of depression in the past. Postpartum depression
– it is usually present to the new mothers who have drastic changes in their
hormones and a typic fear of raising a child after the childbirth. Anyway, even
the mothers who choose to adopt a child can suffer by this kind of depression.
Melancholic depression – it is followed by weight loss and lack of interest in
activities that important and were liked by you before. It affects your mood
and your interaction with the others because of social anxiety. Catatonic
depression – it is followed by mood issues and you might have involuntary
movements. The symptoms of this kind of depression interfere with your daily
activities.

Dysthymia

It is also called persistent
depressive disorder and it is a chronic form of depression. Usually, it happens
during early childhood, teen period or young adulthood. It is a really
problematic disorder because it affects drastically your mood during the day,
followed by lack interest in your routine or daily activities, being
pessimistic most of the time, being not interested in creating relationships
with people around you (especially in school, gym, public places) and being not
productive in your performance during the day. It is almost impossible to feel
happy or to have fun in most of the situations because of your mood disorder.
Anyway, dysthymia is much lighter than major depression, but the fact that it
is a chronic disorder that can last for years makes it really challenging for
the patients.

Bipolar
Disorder

This type of mood
disorder is usually called as manic depression because your mood alters in an
extreme way between two different and contrary stages of emotions: depression
and mania, which makes it a little controversial as a disorder. Normally when
you are depressed you have a low-self esteem, you feel incapable of doing
anything and you are not interested in things or people around you. In
contrary, when you are in mania phase you feel full of energy, extremely euphoric,
and sometimes nervous or angry. This drastic altering in mood can have a really
bad influence or effects on your health condition because it can affect your
behavior, judgment, concentration, sleep and your physical activity. Bipolar
disorder is very problematic because it is a disorder that will occur during
all your life and to manage and control it you should follow a special
treatment plan including different methods and medications.

Bipolar disorder
includes some subclasses of itself which should be mentioned, like Bipolar 1 –
One manic situation followed and mixed by other hypomanic and depressive
situations. Following these episodes, psychosis is a phenomenon that can show
up after these problems. People with this disorder can be dangerous. Bipolar 2
– Experience one depressive or hypomanic situation, but not followed by manic
experiences. Cyclothymic – Being through hypomania and depressive disorders for
one or two years. Other – Cushing’s disease, sclerosis, or stroke that are
induced by alcohol, drugs, medicines etc.

Mood
disorder related to another health condition.

Mood disorder is a
common problem that sometimes occurs when you are suffering from a particular
disease like neurological diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson etc; cancer,
problems related with thyroids and pancreas, infections, problems related with
the heart ( heart attack). Physical conditions are closely related to the mood
control and can easily trigger problems or mood disorder. Counseling with a
doctor and checking your diagnosis or analysis is an important step to know the
reason or the cause of your mood disorder. If your analysis shows that your
mood disorder is related to any disease or other health condition than you are
able to select the proper effective medications.

Substance-induced
mood disorder.

This type of mood
disorder is caused by taking or abusing or even by stopping a particular
substance which can be different types of drugs or alcohol.  The changes in your mood can last for weeks.
These changes are followed by depression symptoms or uncontrolled mania. Mood
disorder is considered substance-induced only if it shows after you started to
take drugs or to consume alcohol regularly. The factors that influence in our
way of thinking, judging, acting are some particular chemicals that are
produced by the brain. By taking drugs, you disbalance the amount of these
chemicals and that’s what cause the changes in your mood. Drugs can show
problems while you are taking them but there are some other drugs that can show
problems for a period of time even when you stop taking them. Different drugs
that can influence your mood are alcohol, cocaine, LSD, decongestants,
antidepressants and other medicines that are related to different health
problems.

3.
Symptoms

When you come the
particular symptoms of any type of mood disorder, they are almost the same for
each one of them. The most common symptoms or signs of mood disorders are
related with depression characteristics like: not being able to focus and
concentrate, sleeping much more than usual, having suicidal thoughts, weight
disorder meaning losing or gaining, being nervous and anxious most of the time,
negative way of thinking, being cold with people around you including family,
friends etc.; losing your sexual desires, feeling hopeless, having headaches
and physical pain, being sad all the time, low-self esteem, lack of
productivity in work or school, and sometimes drug and alcohol abusement. In
the other hand, there are symptoms related with mania or hypomania like abnormal
energy, euphory, lack of sleep, psychosis, lack of judgment in decision-making,
tendency to be violent, tendency to take sexual initiatives.

4.
Causes

There are several
factors that can cause any of mood disorders and we can say that the exact one
is still unknown, but the most important and crucial ones that can have a big
role in this problem are biological factors which are about the fact that
people with a mood disorder have physical changes in their brains. The reason
why these changes happen is still unknown but it is known that has a big
influence. Genes or inherited traits which is related with the fact that any
type of mood disorder is more common to be present in people whose relatives
have the same diagnosis. Researchers are still monitoring the genes that may
influence this problem. Traumatic Experiences which including difficult
experiences like stress, losing a family person or financial, legal problems.

 

5.
Medications and Treatments

Normally mood disorder
can have several treatments including psychotherapy, group therapy,  drugs, 
medications,  ECT, and other
treatments of the somatic type. Psychotherapy is the first phase that should be
applied to children and teens but this varies in the situation. The most
typical medication that is used in this case is antidepressants. The most used
ones are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic
antidepressants (TCAs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
(SNRIs). According to psychotherapy, there are a lot of them which can be
effective in this particular case like cognitive behavioral therapy. ECT or
electroconvulsive therapy is not preferred and it is applied only in emergent
situations. The medications differ based on the person symptoms and needs. You
need to continue your medication even when you are feeling better because most
of the mood disorder types are a lifetime problem and may show up at every
time. In cases when you are a drug or alcohol abuser, you need to be treated
even for that and sometimes even hospitalization is necessary. Increasing the
effectiveness of these medications is mostly up to the patient because the most
important part is to motivate yourself and being sure that you can surpass this
difficulty. Some self strategies that can help you are: try to motivate
yourself and to prevent factors that can cause you stress or that can damage
your self-esteem, speak with your family and your friends in difficult times,
try to get treatment since the beginning when you find out this problem, try to
find and apply long-term treatment.

6.
Statistics

·      
Mood disorder is really major and
present problem among the population. Approximately 20.9 million American
adults, or about 9.5 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given
year, have a mood disorder. The median age of onset of mood disorders is 30
years. Depressive disorders often co-occur with anxiety disorders and substance
abuse. (Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005)

·      
An estimated 9.7% of U.S. adults had any
mood disorder in the past year. Past year prevalence of any mood disorder among
adults was higher for females (11.6%) than for males (7.7%). An estimated 21.4%
of U.S. adults experience any mood disorder at some time in their lives Of
adults with any mood disorder in the past year, the degree of impairment ranged
from mild to serious. An estimated 45.0% had a serious impairment, 40.0% had a
moderate impairment, and 15.0% had mild impairment. An estimated 14.3% of
adolescents had any mood disorder, and an estimated 11.2% had a severe impairment.
The prevalence of any mood disorder among adolescents was higher for females
(18.3%) than for males (10.5%).( National Comorbidity Survey Replication or
NCS-R, 2017)

·      
According to the Mental Illness Policy
Organization, on average, people with bipolar disorder go to 3 or more doctors
and endure 8 years of treatment prior to being correctly diagnosed.

·      
Women are 60 percent more likely to have
an anxiety disorder than men (nimh.nih.gov, 2017)

7.
Conclusions

In brief, mood disorder
is a sensitive and very popular problem in our society and the progress made to
prevent and give an exact solution for people who are suffering by these
disorders is not fully completed and there are many points that should be
fulfilled to achieve what we expect. Anyway doctors and other specialists are
following a good path on determining the real factors that cause such
disorders, in order to find the proper solution to this topic. An ideal example
for this is the research initiatives that are taken by too many specialists of this
field for the influence of genes on our mood. The statistics shown before are a
concrete fact of the seriousness of this problem in our population, where
almost 21 million Americans suffer from these disorders, especially the
youngsters, including children and teenagers and almost 10% of the population
suffered only last year from any mood disorder including major depression,
dysthymia, bipolar disorder etc. Talking about medications and treatments, the
patients should take this part more seriously because it is crucial on giving a
real solution for them, mentioning here psychotherapy or any kind of therapy
and even medications given by the doctor. The most important point is to
believe in yourself and to never lose hope because motivation and self-esteem
are extremely important in surpassing this problem. We should think positively
and the best way to do that is to be social, to surround yourself with good,
positive people and talking with your friends and family for any problem
because this is the best solution to prevent any of these disorders that we
mentioned before.

8. Bibliography:

·       Lieber, A. (2017, December
11). Major Depressive Disorder Can Often
be Treated for Better Quality of Life. Retrieved from: https://www.psycom.net/depression.central.major.html

·      
Persistent depressive disorder
(dysthymia). In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5.
5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org.

·      
Harvard Medical School, 2005. National Comorbidity Survey
(NCS). (2017, August 21). Retrieved from https://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/index.php. Data Table
2: 12-month
prevalence DSM-IV/WMH-CIDI disorders by sex and cohort.

·      
Harvard
Medical School, 2005. National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). (2017, August 21).
Retrieved from https://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/index.php. Data Table 1: Lifetime prevalence DSM-IV/WMH-CIDI
disorders by sex and cohort.

·      
Bipolar disorder. National Institute of Mental
Health. Retrieved from : https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml.

·      
Any Mood Disorder.(2017, Novemeber). Retrieved
from : https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml.

·      
Bipolar
Disorder.(2017, February). Retrieved from : https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20355955

·      
Dysthimia.(2017,
August).https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/persistent-depressive-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20350929

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